A liquidity trap means consumers' preference for liquid assets (cash) is greater than the rate at which the quantity of money is growing. So any attempt by policymakers to get individuals to hold non-liquid assets in the form of consumption by increasing the money supply won't work.
For a long time, the macro-economy was managed by changing interest rates. So it is quite a shock for policy makers to experience a situation where their main policy tool was no longer sufficient. Hence the range of unorthodox monetary and fiscal policies.
Liquidity Trap 2009-11In the UK, Base interest rates were cut to 0.5% in March 2009. For a considerable time, the economy remained in recession. Helped by quantitative easing and a devaluation in the Pound, there was a weak recovery in 2010. However, 2011 and 2012 saw a fall in the rate of economic growth. This period is a good example of a liquidity trap.
Interest rate cuts to 0.5% did little to create a strong economic recovery.
Why do Liquidity Traps Occur?
- Expectations of deflation. If there is deflation or people expect deflation (fall in prices) then real interest rates can be quite high even if nominal interest rates are zero. - If prices are falling 2% a year, then keeping cash under your mattress means your money will increase in value. The difficulty is in having a negative nominal interest rates (banks would be paying you to borrow money). There have been attempts to create a negative interest rates (e.g. destroy money in circulation but in practice it is rarely implemented.
- Preference for Saving . Liquidity traps occur during periods of recessions and a gloomy economic outlook. Consumers, firms and banks are pessimistic about the future, so they look to increase their precautionary savings and it is difficult to get them to spend. This rise in the savings ratio means spending falls. Also, in recessions banks are much more reluctant to lend. Also, cutting the base rate to 0% may not translate into lower commercial bank lending rates as banks just don't want to lend.
- Credit Crunch. Banks lost significant sums of money in buying sub-prime debt which defaulted. Therefore, they are seeking to improve their balance sheets. They are reluctant to lend so even if firms and consumers want to take advantage of low interest rates, banks won't lend them the money.
- Unwillingness to hold bonds. If interest rates are zero, investors will expect interest rates to rise sometime. If interest rates rise, the price of bonds falls (see: inverse relationship between bond yields and bond prices) Therefore, investors would rather keep cash savings than hold bonds.
- Banks Don't pass Base Rate cuts onto consumers
In liquidity trap, commercial banks may not pass base rate onto consumers.
How To Overcome A Liquidity Trap
- Quantitative Easing - policy to create money and reduce yields on government and corporate bonds
- Expansionary Fiscal Policy
- Overcoming Liquidity trap
- Higher Inflation Expectations
- Liquidity Trap and Fiscal Policy