The report suggests the real unemployment level is higher because there are many people unemployed but not entitled to unemployment benefits. (see also: What is true level of unemployment in UK)
In September, the employment rate fell to 72% and the official unemployment rate rose to 8.0%
Solutions to Unemployment1. Demand Side Policies.
Undoubtedly, the main cause of unemployment is the current recession and output gap. With demand falling, firms have spare capacity and so are employing less workers. This is why we have:
- 0.5% interest rates
- expansionary fiscal policy
- Quantitative easing.
An employment subsidy could be given to firms who keep on workers part time during the recession. This saves the government the cost of unemployment benefits and prevents workers being idle and losing on the job training. However, the danger of employment subsidies is that they may be misused by firms who see an opportunity to gain extra income. It is also difficult for the government to decide which workers / firms to subsidise.
Cutting Minimum Wages
With stagnant nominal wage growth, the minimum wage is more at risk of causing real wage unemployment. - wages above equilibrium levels. A cut in minimum wages could create extra job opportunities. However, there is no guarantee that cutting wages actually creates jobs. Since the minimum wage was introduced in 1999, successive increases were compatible with a period of falling unemployment. Cutting wages would also reduce overall demand in the economy, creating less demand for workers.
Education and Training of Long Term Unemployed.
Whilst the majority of current unemployment is cyclical, even before the current recession there were pockets of structural unemployment related to a lack of skills. Relevant skills and training programmes would help the long term unemployed get back into work. Few economists would have any objection to the principle of retraining the unemployed. It is essential the skills and education is highly relevant to the needs of the workforce. However, it is a policy often easier to say than actually do. I don't know a time when we haven't talked about the need to improve education and training. But, I do believe that in the UK, too much emphasis is placed on getting 50% of young people a degree when insufficient money is spent on vocational training.
Reclassification of Incapacity Benefits.
The report mentioned above, suggests that many long term unemployed have been given incapacity benefits when there are still jobs they could do. Rather than conveniently putting people on incapacity benefits, more attention could be given to retraining workers for non-manual labour. The potential cost savings of reducing dependence on sickness benefits are significant. Though it will be a difficult balancing act to prevent those really incapable of work being withdrawn from necessary welfare support. Also, this policy will not reduce the official claimant count, but will increase employment rates.
Flexible Labour Markets.
Many economists have suggested high levels of structural unemployment are due to inflexible labour markets. For example, if it is difficult to hire and fire workers this can discourage firms from employing workers in the first place. Arguably this is a much bigger issue in European countries such as France and Spain.
Shorter Working Week.
The theory is that if workers are doing 40 hour weeks, then reducing the week to 30 hours will lead to an increase in the number of workers employed. However, in practise, it is rarely as simple as that. The shorter working week can also act as hindrance to firms.
The geographical spread of unemployment is not as bad as in the 1980s, but the north south gap still exists. Of the top 20 areas of unemployment all are above the line from the Wash to the Severn. It is again manufacturing output in the UK's industrial heartlines that has been hardest hit. The fall in manufacturing output 13% is double the fall in GDP 6%. Subsidies / tax breaks may be need to encourage firms to open in relatively more depressed areas.
Weak Pound and Restructuring of Economy.
The weak pound does make UK exports more competitive. It may help manufacturing relative to the consumer sector. In the long term, when the global economy recovers, this boost in exports may help create manufacturing jobs in the north.
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